Anthropology is the main area where the concept of humanity is defined and discussed. The humanity concept entails outlining the human capabilities. Different individuals have different capabilities and this is shown by the study of anthropology. It brings out what the human beings are made of and how they can handle different issues affecting them and their surrounding environments. This is what makes some individuals adopt certain valuable positions and material things while others may be locked out of the competition. Anthropology is used to know and to distinguish the cognitive capabilities of individuals from different cultures. In power negotiation and assignment of task and responsibilities in the social institutions, anthropology is one of the key areas used to define how the individuals from different cultures make decisions based on their beliefs.
The cross-cultural study and definitions assist in making decisions on the matters of assigning certain crucial positions or duties to proper individuals. The negotiators, therefore, are able to use the strong history they hold from their culture or the community to achieve particular aims in leadership or key positions in the institutions. This is because some people from particular culture are believed to hold and dominate some leadership capabilities over people from other cultures. This research paper discusses how individuals negotiate for their positions in different institutions, particularly in prisons. The discussion is based on the context of prisons as the area of study (Provis, 1996). The study will discuss the resistance as one of the forms of negotiating for positions among other forms of negotiation. Finally, we will conclude on which is the most suitable and appropriate form of negotiating for positions.
Getting the other Side to be Committed First
This is a form that may be otherwise preferred as counter attack technique. This means that it is important to know the strength and weaknesses of the other competitors or negotiators before taking actions. This assists one to be able to have a better base to defend him/herself in the presence of the interviewers or decision makers. By knowing the weaknesses of the opponent, one can easily make perfect on those areas, and by knowing the strengths or the weaknesses, one is able to know which criteria or methods to use in his/her game to meet the requirements and become better than the opponents. In prisons, there are different groups of people mainly divided into their social backgrounds, ethnic backgrounds, and to some extent, some position themselves to the causes, which made them to be imprisoned. The people from these groups may be aiming to be granted some positions in the prisons over their inmates (Zartman, 2000).
The criteria discussed may be used where one can just keep quiet and observe as his/her counterparts express their ideas, views and speak up their minds. They then think these ideas over and know where to make collections and to perfectualize. By doing so, one negotiates for his/her position perfectly and proves out to be a leader who can hold a particular position competently over the others. By knowing what skills and knowledge other individuals possess, you can easily determine ways to improve on your capability beyond their capabilities and stand out as the unique one. This convinces the decision makers and gives you the advantage over the others who like exposing themselves. This brings out the concept of not going out first, which is very important, as one will not expose his /her weaknesses and strength to the opponents.
There are many types of resistance used by individuals to stand their ground defending their identity . These types of resistance may include intellectual, physical, spiritual emotional etc. They help one to know what to adopt and what to omit, for instance when making decision on what is the most appropriate choice for a person and the group of people involved with him/her. It means resisting to the issues that do not add value to the lives and works of the individuals. Those who have ever worked with youth know that one of the hectic parts they have to deal with while working with youngsters is the resistance because they deny much of the issues they feel being not of much advantage to them. In this part of the paper we will look at the intellectual resistance, this means having different views from others and disagreeing fully with their logics. This type of resistance forms arguments that bring out logics thus showing their capability and bringing out the personality in them.
Anthropology defines individuals who are found to be having a larger brain capacity than the others’; the large brain volume assists them in thinking much critically and creatively. They are capable of making perfect decisions not based on those that were made. The different opinions are brought about because of intellectual reasoning (Maier, 1975). In prisons where there are mixtures of skilled and talented individuals of different occupations and with different backgrounds, it is important to give everyone who differs in making and implementing certain issues, a chance to express their intellectual ideas. People who divert from or resist to others ideas and bring about well-implementable and healthy ideas are the suitable ones to hold high-ranking positions. Hence, the decision makers, when choosing a person for a certain position check on these capabilities. There are great people in prisons, full of ideologies and able to make and implement healthy decisions. The position seekers in these institutions need to be very intellectual and sure of their strategies.
Paying much concentration on the issues regarding ones area of jurisdiction is very important in position negotiation. Being concerned about the aim one has determined is of great essence as it sets the mind to attain the goal. In every competition or any other activity undertaken by human beings, concentration is needed much. The level of concentration one pays to the issues regarding the position one holds is a good shield in negotiating for that particular position. This brings out the context of getting concentrated much on the issues that affect people, rather than thinking of the opponents and what they are doing (Lunden, 1965). Checking on people’s affairs assists in to maintaining a person in a certain position. Fulfilling promises is implemented by the level of concentration given to the issues by the promise giver. Doing everything to attain the goal is the very best thing to fulfill as a position holder in any institution.
Anthropology, which is the study of the individuals with their backgrounds, based on their social and cultural beliefs, helps people to determine which culture believes in the concentration of issues and matters and believes in the goal attainment. For example in the Royal army, they believe the mission is to defend the Monarch. This means whatever the challenges, even may it be the power of the opponents, they have to accomplish their mission and fulfill what is required of them (Frascogna, 2009). In prisons, the inmates demand much from their leaders who hold positions enough to forward their demands to the respective authorities. This is a pure strategy for the holders of positions or for the people intending to hold the positions to negotiate for them fully. People intending to get the positions, can involve themselves in resolving the matters and the conflicts affecting the inmates. They can negotiate for the positions by pressuring the management of the prisons to fulfill many of their duties that they have neglected. They may get the backup from the inmates who are the affected party. These people should not be intimidated by the powers of the authorities when undertaking what is moral. They should be prepared to face any outcome that may bequeath them (Crawley, 2004). Those who are already in the position should also do the same. They should not be undermined by any external party in fulfilling and making sure that the rights of the human beings in the prison are attained. By doing so, the individuals would have negotiated for their positions fully and be sure of their retention of the positions for unforeseeable future since the subjects will always back them.
Even if you think someone is poor in what he/she does, it is always good to congratulate him or her for his or her works and actions. This makes them feel nice and appreciated and be sure that their work is applauded. Congratulating keeps people going on and yearning to improve their skills much. For example if you are an employer, despite criticizing negatively on every thing the employees do, it is good to give them an appreciation even if they have not done as much as has been expected. This assists in making the subjects have a positive attitude towards the leaders and always appreciate them and what they do. Congratulations are a key motivator in every working group (Carlson, 1999). For a person to hold a leading position and may be for any person intending to hold other positions regarding the public, it is necessary to know how to compliment their subjects despite the incompetencies, because they one day they will become well- competent. In studying anthropology, we see some cultures that support the individualistic acts. The individualistic personalities have the tendencies of under-rating and under-mining other people and presume them to be unable to perform well (Bacharacb, 1986).
In prisons, where an individual’s main task is to reform, the leaders are supposed to congratulate the inmates for the efforts they put to make the best individuals out of themselves. They have to assist them in doing right and to be good citizens. By showing good attitude to the inmates, leaders develop a good attitude towards themselves and thus, it is very easy for anyone to negotiate for the positions intended.
Every individual desires to attain and retain a good position in any institution. It is such a privilege to be accredited with a job to be concerned about other people and make decisions on behalf of others. In order for the led people to appreciate once job, he/she should be able to incorporate and to adhere to the positive desires of the subjects or the people whom he/she leads. The above-discussed forms of position negotiating are key guidelines to rule the position negotiators. Mainly, the intellectual resistance is the best form of how leaders should behave. This is because leaders are meant to bring changes and implement them fully. In order to negotiate for most of the positions, the negotiators should be competent problem solvers who use logics that outdo the ideas of their opponents. Keeping in touch with the subjects is also a key method in negotiating for the position, i.e. if it were not for them, then one could not be holding or desiring to hold the position negotiated for.