EBD Causal Factors
There are multiple factors that contribute to Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD), including family, social, biological, and community variables. Therefore, when evaluating the causal factors of EBD, it is essential to consider both the past and present medical history of the individual, as well as the qualifications of previous healthcare providers.
Documentation and interviews of past examinations should also be included in the evaluation process, as they can provide valuable insights into the individual’s medical history and potential causal factors. Since the causes of EBD vary among students based on their unique experiences and medical histories, it is crucial for educators to identify these factors to develop appropriate intervention models for students with EBD.
Biological Causal Factors
When psychological evaluations fail to provide a clear explanation, biological factors may offer significant insights into the causal factors of certain behaviors. While children have inherent psychological and biological tendencies, their behavior can be shaped by social and educational stimuli. Furthermore, genetics have been identified as a contributing factor to various Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.
In cases of antisocial behavior in students, inadequate social interaction due to neglectful parenting, abusive or excessive punishment, and a lack of affection or positive reinforcement for good behavior have been observed. Children often mimic their parents’ behavior and routines, essentially becoming like their parents.
Family Causal Factors
During the formative years, the family environment plays a critical role in shaping a child’s behavior. This is because children experience various factors within the family setting before they are exposed to other environments, such as school. In turn, a child’s behavior can also impact their parents’ behavior and stress levels, potentially increasing the risk of dysfunction and discord within the family.
The rise in single-parent families resulting from divorce and unmarried mothers is a significant contributor to the family causal factors of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Additionally, interpersonal conflicts, economic difficulties, increasing drug and alcohol use, abuse, and neglect all contribute to these factors. As such, educators and school administrators must consider their students’ home environments as significant contributors to their behavior and academic performance. The impact of the family cannot be underestimated in a student’s development of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.
Social Causal Factors
Since children spend a significant amount of time in the school and home environments; they are exposed to various social factors which might influence their behavior. In the event that a child has age-inappropriate and negative tendencies such as physical violence, depression and tantrums, more so, in the preschool environment; it is likely that such a child will continue to illustrate similar behavioral tendencies in school. Erratic behavior and emotional tendencies often lead to social rejection as a consequence of persistent behavioral transgressions. These culminate to disciplinary action being taken against erratic students, which may impact students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders negatively.
Cultural Causal Factors
Cultural factors may be characterized as inherent social interactions that have an affinity to impact children’s behavior. As a result of exposure to various prejudices, expectations and attitudes, children have the capacity to imitate or adapt constructive and destructive behavioral traits. In light of this, educators must make a resolute effort to eradicate bias on the basis of a student’s cultural background in the evaluation process. Significantly, educators should acknowledge the existence of cultural disparities while interacting with students suffering from Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.
Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders exhibit a wide range of complex and impulsive behaviors, which require varied conceptual intervention models for effective treatment. While behavioral deficits or excesses are common among them, there are various intervention models to choose from, including biological, psycho-dynamic, behavioral, humanistic, psycho-educational, and ecological models. The social-cognitive model is one of the widely used modern intervention processes, which integrates the roles of cognition and environment in explaining behavior.
The psycho-dynamic model is based on the pathological disproportion in an individual’s Ego, Super ego, and Id, while the biogenic/biological model considers behavior a result of neurophysiological activities and mechanisms. The humanistic model emphasizes the individual’s surrounding and requires heightened intellectual skills to alter behavior towards positive outcomes. The psycho-educational model focuses on sensitizing the student, creating awareness of negative behavior, and influencing their thoughts towards positive results. Meanwhile, the social-cognitive theory evaluates the reciprocal impacts of individual-based variables, behavior, and environment in understanding behavior.
It is essential not to exclude students with EBD from receiving critical services such as education, and future initiatives should focus on enhancing the outcomes and benefits for these students. Therefore, educators and practitioners in the field of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders should consider implementing improved service delivery systems to cater to the needs of EBD students.
Identifying the causes of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD) in students is crucial for educators to develop appropriate intervention models. Due to the diverse incidents and medical histories of students, the causes of EBD are varied, making it challenging to determine the primary, secondary, and tertiary causal factors and subsequent remedial factors. Schools have a responsibility to influence society and families through their intervention role, but sometimes a causal factor may not be immediately apparent or may not be remediable.
Therefore, it is important to balance facts, scientific inquiry, and unbiased interpretations and assessments to develop an optimal strategy for behavior intervention that integrates with an educational model. While an individual’s intelligence remains constant except for unfortunate diseases or accidents, behavior can be modified through education and intervention strategies that involve rigorous cognitive and proactive approaches, such as social skills training.